PPN Facebook PPN Twitter PPN Instagram

Bibliography

Clinical Presentation of PANDAS (and PANS)

[Gaughan2016] Gaughan T, Buckley A, Hommer R, et al. Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Abnormalities in Children with Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS). Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine : JCSM : Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. 2016;12(7):1027-1032. doi:10.5664/jcsm.5942.

[Frankovich2015] Frankovich J, Thienemann M, Pearlstein J, Crable A, Brown K, Chang K. Multidisciplinary Clinic Dedicated to Treating Youth with Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome: Presenting Characteristics of the First 47 Consecutive Patients. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology. 2015;25(1):38-47. doi:10.1089/cap.2014.0081.

[Frankovich2015] Frankovich J, Thienemann M, Rana S, Chang K. Five Youth with Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome of Differing Etiologies.Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology. 2015;25(1):31-37. doi:10.1089/cap.2014.0056.

[Swedo2015] Swedo SE, Seidlitz J, Kovacevic M, et al. Clinical Presentation of Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal infections in Research and Community Settings. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology. 2015;25(1):26-30. doi:10.1089/cap.2014.0073.

[Gerardi2015] Gerardi DM, Casadonte J, Patel P, Murphy TK. PANDAS and Comorbid Kleine–Levin Syndrome. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology. 2015;25(1):93-98. doi:10.1089/cap.2014.0064.

[Toufexis2015] Toufexis MD, Hommer R, Gerardi DM, et al. Disordered Eating and Food Restrictions in Children with PANDAS/PANS. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology. 2015;25(1):48-56. doi:10.1089/cap.2014.0063.

[Chang2015] Chang K, Frankovich J, Cooperstock M, et al. Clinical Evaluation of Youth with Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS): Recommendations from the 2013 PANS Consensus Conference. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology. 2015;25(1):3-13. doi:10.1089/cap.2014.0084.

[Swedo1998] Swedo, SE, Leonard, HL, Garvey, M, et al. Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infections: Clinical Description of the First 50 Cases. Am J Psychiatry.1998;155(2):264-271, PMID:9464208

[Murphy2002] Murphy ML, Pichichero ME. Prospective identification and treatment of children with Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Group AStreptococcal infection (PANDAS). Arch PediatrAdolesc Med. 2002;156(4):356-361. PMID:11929370

[Murphy2004] Murphy TK, Sajid M, Soto O, et al. Detecting pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus in children with obsessive-compulsive disorder and tics. Biol Psychiatry. 2004;55(1):611-668. PMID:14706426

[Swedo2004] Swedo SE, Leonard HL, Rapoport JL. The pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection (PANDAS) subgroup: separating fact from fiction. Pediatrics. 2004;113(4):907-11. PMID:15060242

[Sokol1997] Sokol MS, Gray NS. Case study: An infection-triggered, autoimmune subtype of anorexia nervosa. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1997;36(8):1128-1133. PMID:9256593

[Sokol2000] Sokol MS.Infection-triggered anorexia nervosa in children.Clinical description of four cases.J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacology. 2000; 10(2):133-145. PMID:10933123

[Vincenzi2010] Vincenzi B, O’Toole J, Lask B. PANDAS and anorexia nervosa – a spotter’s guide: suggestions for medical assessment. Eur Eat Disord Rev. 2010; 18(2):116-123. PMID:20148396

[Bernstein2010] Bernstein GA, Victor AM, Pipal AJ, Williams KA. Comparison of clinical characteristics of pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) and childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder. J Child Adol Psychopharmacology 2010; 20(4):333-340. PMID: 20807071

[Swedo2012] Swedo SE, Leckman JF, Rose NR. From research subgroup to clinical syndrome: modifying the PANDAS criteria to describe PANS (pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome). Pediatrics & Therapeutics 2012, 2:2. On-line article available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2161-0665.1000113

Relationship of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) to Sydenham chorea (and rheumatic fever)

[Swedo1989] Swedo, SE, Rapoport, JL, Cheslow, DL, et al. High Prevalence of Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms in Patients with Sydenham’s Chorea. Am J Psychiatry. 1989;146(2):246-249.PMID:2912267

[Swedo1993] Swedo, SE, Leonard, HL, Schapiro, MB, et al. Sydenham’s Chorea: Physical and Psychological Symptoms of St. Vitus’ Dance. Pediatrics. 1993;91(4):706-713.PMID:8464654

[Swedo1994] Swedo, SE. Sydenham’s Chorea. A Model for Childhood Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders.JAMA. 1994; 272(22):1788-1791. PMID:7661914

[Murphy2000] Murphy, T.K., Goodman, W.K., Ayoub, E.M., Voeller, K.K. On defining Sydenham’s chorea: where do we draw the line?Biological Psychiatry.2000; 47, 851-7.PMID:10807957

[Mercadante2000]Mercadante, M.T., Busatto, G.F., Lombroso, P.J., Prado, L., Rosario-Campos, M.C., do Valle, R., Marques-Dias, M.J., Kiss, M.H., Leckman, J.F., Miguel, E.C. The Psychiatric Symptoms of Rheumatic Fever. American Journal of Psychiatry, 2000:157, 2036-2038. PMID:11097972

[Asbahr2005] Asbahr, F.R., Garvey, M.A., Snider, L.A., Zanetta, D.M., Elkis, H., Swedo, S.E. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms among patients with Sydenham chorea. Biological Psychiatry, 2005:57, 1073-6. PMID:15860349

Studies of the Relationship of GAS to OCD/PANDAS

[Murphy2002] Murphy ML, Pichichero ME. Prospective identification and treatment of children with Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Group AStreptococcal infection (PANDAS). Arch PediatrAdolesc Med. 2002; 156(4):356-361.PMID:11929370

[Snider2002] Snider LA, Seligman LD, Ketchen BR, et al. Tics and problem behaviors in school children: Prevalence, characterization, and associations. Pediatrics 2002; 110(2):331-336.PMID:12165586

[Mell2005] Mell LK, Davis RL, Owens D.Association between streptococcal infection and obsessive-compulsive disorder, Tourette’s syndrome and tic disorder.Pediatrics 2005; 116:56-60. PMID:15995031

[Murphy2007] Murphy TK, Snider LA, Mutch PJ et al. Relationship of movements and behaviors to Group A streptococcus infections in elementary school children. Biol Psychiatry 2007; 61(3):279-84.PMID:17126304

[Garvey1999] Garvey, M.A., Perlmutter, S.J., Allen, A.J., et al. A pilot study of penicillin prophylaxis for neuropsychiatric exacerbations triggered by streptococcal infections. Biol Psychiatry, 1999:45, 1564-71.PMID:10376116

[Snider2005] Snider, L.A., Lougee, L., Slattery, M et al. Antibiotic prophylaxis with azithromycin or penicillin for childhood-onset neuropsychiatric disorders.Biol Psychiatry, 2005;57(7), 788-92.PMID:15820236

Laboratory Studies of GABHS Serologic Markers

[Hysmith2017] Nicholas D. Hysmith, Edward L. Kaplan, P. Patrick Cleary, Dwight R. Johnson, Thomas A. Penfound, James B. Dale; Prospective Longitudinal Analysis of Immune Responses in Pediatric Subjects After Pharyngeal Acquisition of Group A Streptococci. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2017; 6 (2): 187-196. doi: 10.1093/jpids/piw070

[Jacob2016] Jacob KM, Spilker T, LiPuma JJ, Dawid SR, Watson ME. Complete Genome Sequence of emm4 Streptococcus pyogenes MEW427, a Throat Isolate from a Child Meeting Clinical Criteria for Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcus (PANDAS). Genome Announcements. 2016;4(2):e00127-16. doi:10.1128/genomeA.00127-16.

[Thamotharampillai2015] Thamotharampillai Dileepan, et al. Group A Streptococcus intranasal infection promotes CNS infiltration by streptococcal-specific Th17 cellsJ Clin Invest. 2016;126(1):303–317. PMID:26657857

[Shet2003] Shet A, Kaplan EL, Johnson DR, Cleary PP.Immune Response to Group A Streptococcal C5a Peptidase in Children: Implications for Vaccine DevelopmentJ Infect Dis. 2003 Sep 15;188(6):809-17. PMID:12964111

[LaPenta1994] LaPenta D, Rubens C, Chi E, Cleary PP. Group A streptococci efficiently invade human respiratory epithelial cells. ProcNatlAcadSci U S A. 1994 Dec 6;91(25):12115-9; PMID:7991594

Laboratory Studies of Cross-reactive (Anti-GAS/Anti-Brain) Antibodies in Sydenham chorea and PANDAS

[Frick2017]Luciana R. Frick, Maximiliano Rapanelli, Kantiya Jindachomthong, Paul Grant, James F. Leckman, Susan Swedo, Kyle Williams, Christopher Pittenger, Differential binding of antibodies in PANDAS patients to cholinergic interneurons in the striatum, Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, Available online 9 December 2017, ISSN 0889-1591, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2017.12.004.

[Nicolini2015] Detection of anti-streptococcal, antienolase, and anti-neural antibodies in subjects with early-onset psychiatric disorders. Humberto Nicolini, Yaumara López, Alma D. Genis-Mendoza, Viana Manrique, Lilia Lopez-Canovas, Esperanza Niubo, Lázaro Hernández, María A. Bobes, Ana M. Riverón, Mavil López-Casamichana, et al. Actas Esp Psiquiatr. 2015 Mar-Apr; 43(2): 35–41. Published online 2015 Mar 1.

[Cox2015] Cox CJ, Zuccolo AJ, Edwards EV, et al. Antineuronal Antibodies in a Heterogeneous Group of Youth and Young Adults with Tics and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology. 2015;25(1):76-85. doi:10.1089/cap.2014.0048.

[Kirvan2003] Kirvan, C.A, Swedo, S.E., Heuser, J.S., & Cunningham, M.W. Mimicry and Autoantibody-Mediated Neuronal Cell Signaling in Sydenham Chorea.Nature Medicine, 2003:9, 914-920. PMID:12819778

[Singer2003] Singer HS, Loiselle CR, Lee O, et al.Anti-basal ganglia antibody abnormalities in Sydenham chorea. J Neuroimmunol 2003; 136(1-2):1154-61. PMID:12620655

[Singer2004] Singer HS, Loiselle CR, Lee O, et al.Anti-basal ganglia antibodies in PANDAS.Mov Disorder 2004; 19(4):406-15.PMID:15077238

[Kirvan2006] Kirvan, C.A, Swedo, S.E., Snider, L.A., Cunningham, M.W. Antibody-mediated neuronal cell signaling in behavior and movement disorders. Journal of Neuroimmunology, 2006:179, 173-9.PMID:16875742

[Kirvan2007] Kirvan, C.A., Cox, C.J., Swedo, S.E., Cunningham, M.W. Tubulin is a neuronal target of autoantibodies in Sydenham’s chorea. Journal of Immunology, 2007:178, 7412-21.PMID:17513792

[Harel2001] Harel Z, Hallett J, Riggs S, Vaz R, Kiessling L. Antibodies against human putamen in adolescents with anorexia nervosa.Int J Eat Disord 2001;29(4):463-469.PMID:11285584

[Husby1976] Husby G, van de Rijn I, Zabriskie JB, et al. Antibodies reacting with cytoplasm of subthalamic and caudate nuclei neurons in chorea and acute rheumatic fever. J Exp Med. 1976 Oct 1;144(4):1094-110. PMID:789810

Animal Models of PANDAS

[Thamotharampillai2016] Thamotharampillai Dileepan, Erica D. Smith, Daniel Knowland, Martin Hsu, Maryann Platt, Peter Bittner-Eddy, Brenda Cohen, Peter Southern, Elizabeth Latimer, Earl Harley, Dritan Agalliu, P. Patrick Cleary. Group A Streptococcus intranasal infection promotes CNS infiltration by streptococcal-specific Th17 cells. J Clin Invest. 2016;126(1):303-317. doi:10.1172/JCI80792.

[Hoffman2004] Hoffman KL, Hornig M, Yaddanapudi K, Jabado O, Lipkin WI. A murine model for neuropsychiatric disorders associated with group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection. J Neurosci 2004 ;24(7):1780-91.PMID:14973249

[Yaddanapudi2010] Yaddanapudi K, Hornig M, Serge R, et al. Passive transfer of streptococcus-induced antibodies reproduces behavioral disturbances in a mouse model of pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection.Mol Psychiatry. 2010; 15(7):712-26.PMID:19668249

[Brimberg2012] Brimberg L, Benhar I, Mascaro-Blanco A, et al.Behavioral, pharmacological and immunological abnormalities after streptococcal exposure: a novel rat model of Sydenham chorea and related neuropsychiatric disorders. Neuropsychopharmacology 2012; 37:2076-2087. PMID:22534626

[Wang2010] Wang B, Dileepan T, Briscoe S, et al. Induction of TGF-ß1 and TGF-ß1-dependent predominant Th17 differentiation by group A streptococcal infection.ProcNatlAcadSci U S A. 2010 Mar 30;107(13):5937-42.;PMID:20231435

Additional PANDAS/PITAND studies, including treatment trials

[Brown2017] Brown Kayla D., et al. Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome Response to Oral Corticosteroid Bursts: An Observational Study of Patients in an Academic Community-Based PANS Clinic. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology. July 2017.

[Brown2017] Brown Kayla D., et al. Effect of Early and Prophylactic Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs on Flare Duration in Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome: An Observational Study of Patients Followed by an Academic Community-Based Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome Clinic. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2017 July 11. https://doi.org/10.1089/cap.2016.0193.

[Spartz 2017] Spartz,Ellen, et al. Course of Neuropsychiatric Symptoms After Introduction and Removal of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs: A Pediatric Observational Study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2017 July 11. https://doi.org/10.1089/cap.2016.0179.

[Murphy2017] Murphy TK, et al. A Double-Blind Randomized Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study of Azithromycin in Youth with Acute-Onset Obsessive-Compulsive DisorderJ Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2017 Mar 30.PMID:28358599

[Mahony2017] Mahony, Talia et al. Improvement of psychiatric symptoms in youth following resolution of sinusitisJ Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. Vol 92 , 38 – 44, January 2017. PMID:28012531.

[Latimer2015] Latimer ME, L’Etoile N, Seidlitz J, Swedo SE. Therapeutic Plasma Apheresis as a Treatment for 35 Severely Ill Children and Adolescents with Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infections. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology. 2015;25(1):70-75. doi:10.1089/cap.2014.0080.

[Kovacevic2015] Kovacevic M, Grant P, Swedo SE. Use of Intravenous Immunoglobulin in the Treatment of Twelve Youths with Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal infections. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology. 2015;25(1):65-69. doi:10.1089/cap.2014.0067.

[Demesh2015] Demesh D, Virbalas JM, Bent JP. The Role of Tonsillectomy in the Treatment of Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated With Streptococcal Infections (PANDAS). JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2015;141(3):272-275. doi:10.1001/jamaoto.2014.3407

[Wong2016] Impact of Immunoglobulin Therapy in Pediatric Disease: a Review of Immune Mechanisms
Wong, P.H. & White, K.M. Clinic Rev Allerg Immunol (2016) 51: 303. doi:10.1007/s12016-015-8499-2

[Nadeau2015] Nadeau JM, Jordan C, Selles RR, et al. A Pilot Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Augmentation of Antibiotic Treatment in Youth with Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome-Related Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology. 2015;25(4):337-343. doi:10.1089/cap.2014.0149.

[Allen1995] Allen, AJ, Leonard, H, Swedo, SE. Case Study: A New Infection-Triggered, Autoimmune Subtype of Pediatric OCD and Tourette’s Syndrome. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1995;34(3):307-311.PMID:7896671

[Perlmutter1999] Perlmutter, S.J., Leitman, S.F., Garvey, M.A., Hamburger, S., Feldman, E., Leonard, H.L. & Swedo, S.E. (1999). Therapeutic Plasma Exchange and Intravenous Immunoglobulin for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Tic Disorders in Childhood.The Lancet, 354, 1153-1158.PMID: 10513708

[Storch2006] Storch EA, Murphy TK, Geffken GR, et al. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for PANDAS-related obsessive-compulsive disorder: findings from a waitlist controlled open trial.J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2006; 45(10):1171-8.PMID:17003662

[Lougee2000] Lougee L, Perlmutter SJ, Nicholson R, et al. (2000) Psychiatric disorders in first-degree relatives of children with pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection (PANDAS).J Am Acad Child Adol Psychiatry 39(3): 1120-1126. PMID:10986808

[Giedd2000] Giedd JN, Rapoport JL, Garvey MA, et al.MRI assessment of children with obsessive-compulsive disorder or tics associated with streptococcal infection. Am J Psychiatry 2000; 157(2), 281-283. PMID:10671403

[Snider2004] Snider, L.A., Sachdev, V., MaCkaronis, J.E., St Peter, M., Swedo, S.E. (2004).Echocardiographic findings in the PANDAS subgroup.Pediatrics, 114, e748-51. PMID:15545618

[Gabbay2008] Gabbay, V., Coffey, B.J., Babb, J.S., Meyer, L., Wachtel, C., Anam, S., Rabinovitz, B. (2008).Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus: comparison of diagnosis and treatment in the community and at a specialty clinic. Pediatrics, 122, 273-8. PMID:18676543

[Lewin2011] Lewin AB, Storch EA, Mutch PJ, et al.Neurocognitive functioning in youth with pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus. J Neuropsychiatry ClinNeurosci 2011; 23(4):391-8.PMID:22231309

[Hirschritt2009] Hirschtritt ME, Hammond CJ, Luckenbaugh D, et al. Executive and Attention Functioning Among Children in the Pandas Subgroup.Child Neuropsychol. 2009 March; 15(2) 179-194. PMID:18622810

[Murphy2010] Murphy TK, Storch EA, Turner A, et al. Maternal history of autoimmune disease in children presenting with tics and/or obsessive-compulsive disorder.J Neuroimmunol 2010; 229(1-2):243-7. PMID:20864184

[Hachiya2013] Hachiya Y, Miyata R, Tanuma N, et al. Autoimmune neurological disorders associated with group-A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection. Brain Dev 2013; 35(7):670-4.PMID:23142103

Studies of the Relationship of GAS to Tic Disorders (including Episodic Tic Disorders labeled as PANDAS)

[Kurlan2008] Kurlan, R., Johnson, D., Kaplan, E.L. and the Tourette Syndrome Study Group.Streptococcal infection and exacerbations of childhood tics and obsessive-compulsive symptoms: a prospective blinded cohort study. Pediatrics.2008;121(6):1188-1197. PMID:18519489

[Leckman2011] Leckman JF, King RA, Gilbert DL, et al. Streptococcal upper respiratory tract infections and exacerbations of tic and obsessive-compulsive symptoms: a prospective longitudinal study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2011;50(2):108-118.e3. PMID:21241948

[Singer2008] Singer HS, Gause C, Morris C, Lopez P.Serial immune markers do not correlate with clinical exacerbations in pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections. Pediatrics. 2008; 121(6):1198-1205.PMID:18519490

[Gause2009] Gause C, Morris C, Vernekar S et al. Antineuronal antibodies in OCD: comparison in children with OCD-only, OCD+chronic tics, and OCD+“PANDAS”. J Neuroimmunol 2009; 214(1-2):118-24.PMID:19628285

[Morris2009] Morris CM, Pardo-Villamizar C, Gause CD, Singer HS.Serum autoantibodies measured by immunofluorescence confirm a failure to differentiate PANDAS and Tourette syndrome from controls. J NeurolSci 2009; 276(1-2):45-8. PMID:18823914

[Morer2008] Morer A, Lazaro L, Sabater L et al.Antineuronal antibodies in a group of children with obsessive-compulsive disorder and Tourette syndrome.J Psychiatr Res 2008; 42(1):64-8. PMID:17113107

[Schrag2010] Schrag A, Gilbert R, Giovannoni G, et al. Streptococcal infection, Tourette syndrome and OCD: Is there a connection?Neurology 2009;73:1256-63. PMID:19794128

Commentaries and The PANDAS Controversy
[Garvey1998] Garvey, MA, Giedd, J, Swedo, SE. PANDAS: the search for environmental triggers of pediatric neuropsychiatric disorders. Lessons from rheumatic fever.J Child Neurol. 1998;13(9):413-423.PMID:9733286

[Singer2012] Singer HS, Gilbert DL, Wolf DS, Mink JW, Kurlan R.Moving from PANDAS to CANS.J Pediatrics 2012; 160(5): 725-731. PMID:22197466

[Murphy2010] Murphy TK, Kurlan R, Leckman J. The immunobiology of Tourette’s disorder, pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with Streptococcus, and related disorders: a way forward. J Child AdolescPsychopharmacol 2010; 20(4):317-31. PMID:20807070

[Kurlan1998] Kurlan, R. (1998). Tourette’s syndrome and ‘PANDAS’: will the relation bear out? Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection. Neurology, 50, 1530-4.PMID: 9633690

[Kurlan2004a] Kurlan, R. (2004). The PANDAS hypothesis: losing its bite?Movement Disorders, 19, 371-4.PMID:15077234

[Kurlan2004b] Kurlan, R., Kaplan, E.L. (2004). The pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection (PANDAS) etiology for tics and obsessive-compulsive symptoms: hypothesis or entity? Practical considerations for the clinician.Pediatrics, 113, 883-6.PMID:15060240

[Swedo2004] Swedo SE, Leonard HL, Rapoport JL. The pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection (PANDAS) subgroup: separating fact from fiction. Pediatrics. 2004;113(4):907-11.PMID:15060242

[Singer2003] Singer HS, Loiselle C.PANDAS: a commentary. J Psychosom Res 2003; 55(1):31-9.PMID:12842229

[Macerollo2013] Macerollo A, Martino D. Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS): an evolving concept. Tremor Other HyperkinetMov 2013; 3: PMID: 24106651http://tremorjournal.org/article/view/167